The second element in the figure of the clause as representation is the Participants, which “are inherent in the process: every experiential type of clause has at least one participant” (H & M, p.175). The type of participant (bold) is dependent on the process (underlined) involved:
1. Actor + Process: material – The lion ran.
2. Senser + Process: mental – The tourist noticed the lion.
3a. Carrier + Process: relational + Attribute – The lion was hungry.
3b. Token + Process: relational + Value – The lion was the king of the jungle.
4. Behaver + Process: behavioural – The tourist screamed.
5. Sayer + Process: verbal – The police announced there would be a search.
6. Existent + Process: existential – There was no trace.