Here are some examples that came up in a business class that might cause problems for students but can be clearly explained:
1. I passed on the idea.
- I (Participant) passed (Process) on the idea (Circumstance) because I didn’t think it would work.
- I (Participant) passed on (Process) the idea (Participant) to management because I thought it was good.
2. We went over the bridge.
- We (Participant) went (Process) over the bridge (Circumstance) driving from North Sydney.
- We (Participant) went over (Process) the bridge (Participant) that we were designing.
3. I looked up the picture.
- I (Participant) looked (Process) up the picture (Circumstance) to see how the frame was hung.
- I (Participant) looked up (Process) the picture (Participant) to see who the artist was.
It might also be helpful to point out the phonological changes that can reflect the patterning of the ideational and textual meanings:
- I passed / on the idea
- I passed on the idea/