Tag Archives: Process

Process + Circumstance v Process

Here are some examples that came up in a business class that might cause problems for students but can be clearly explained: 1. I passed on the idea. I (Participant) passed (Process) on the idea (Circumstance) because I didn’t think … Continue reading

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Activity: verbal and relational clauses

Here is a quick activity I often do with young learners or lower level students. It’s a quick way to highlight the difference between relational and verbal clauses. All you need is two sets of animal cards (or any semantic … Continue reading

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Difference between ‘look’, ‘watch’ and ‘see’

For me, one of the advantages of using Systemic Functional Linguistics in class is being able to answer clearly all those common EFL questions that generally pop up, especially ‘What’s the difference between…?’-type questions. One of the most common is … Continue reading

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Behavioural Processes 1

Behavioural processes construe “(typically human) physiological and psychological behaviour, like breathing, coughing, smiling, dreaming and staring” (H & M, p248). The participant who is ‘behaving’, typically a conscious being, is labelled the behaver (H & M, p250). I’ve noticed that in … Continue reading

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Existential Processes 2

Most, if not all, EFL textbooks first introduce existential clauses through either singular/plural (There is a…/There are some…) or mass/count (There is some…/There are some…) distinctions. This, however, I think misses the whole point of the existential process. Singular and mass etc. … Continue reading

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Existential Processes

An existential clause, such as There was an old person of Dover, functions to “represent that something exists or happens…The word there in such clauses is neither a participant nor a circumstance – it has no representational function in the transitivity … Continue reading

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Activity: relational & material Processes

Here is an activity I often do with Elementary or Pre-Intermediate students that gets them noticing and thinking about the difference between relational Processes which construe ‘states’, and material Processes construing change through time. On a piece of paper, you … Continue reading

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Relational Processes (1)

A typical EFL first lesson often includes self-introductions of the kind like: My name is Taro. I am 12 years old.  These clauses use relational Processes, which “serve to characterize and to identify” (H & M, p.210). These two categories may … Continue reading

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Mental Processes

Mental clauses “are concerned with our experience of the world of our own consciousness” (H & M, p.197). Mental clauses consist of a Sensor, which is a human participant, and a Phenomenon: Mary (Sensor) liked (Process: mental) the gift (Phenomenon) … Continue reading

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Participant

The second element in the figure of the clause as representation is the Participants, which “are inherent in the process: every experiential type of clause has at least one participant” (H & M, p.175). The type of participant (bold) is … Continue reading

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