Tag Archives: verbal

Teaching tenses

This is how I often picture tenses for students. The secondary tense (on the right) construes some kind of change: Advertisements

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Verbal Group 5 – finite tenses

The distinction between the finite tenses in the verbal group is, I think, one of recursive delicacy. But this is not to say that it may continue indefinitely. There are stop rules (where α = primary tense): Apart from α, … Continue reading

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Activity: Verbal group, discourse and Harry Potter

If we teach ‘the tenses’ separately, I think students might not get the interaction between them and how they are used in discourse for different effects. Here is an activity I’ve used with Upper Intermediate – Advanced students, though you could … Continue reading

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Verbal group 4: tense, discourse and trains.

When teaching the future tenses it’s very common to talk about ‘present tense as scheduled future’. For example, ‘The train leaves at 7.30′. Personally, however, I think this might be somewhat misleading. The present tense is the present tense. Importantly, … Continue reading

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Verbal group 3 – tense and discourse

Here is a picture of two people on a date: The language we use to represent the picture depends upon discourse choices. The picture may be represented as a series of completed events or, in other words, a story. In … Continue reading

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Verbal Group 2 – time and space

The tenses are usually presented as a time line where each tense can be named separately yet this is somewhat misleading, or “distorted” as H & M put it (p.345). I think it might be more useful to think in three-dimensional … Continue reading

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Activity: verbal and relational clauses

Here is a quick activity I often do with young learners or lower level students. It’s a quick way to highlight the difference between relational and verbal clauses. All you need is two sets of animal cards (or any semantic … Continue reading

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Participant

The second element in the figure of the clause as representation is the Participants, which “are inherent in the process: every experiential type of clause has at least one participant” (H & M, p.175). The type of participant (bold) is … Continue reading

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Verbal Processes 2

In addition to the Sayer there are three further participants possible with verbal Processes: Receiver, Verbiage and Target (H & M, p.255). The Receiver is “the one to whom the saying is directed…realised by a nominal group typically denoting a … Continue reading

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Verbal Processes 1

Verbal Processes “contribute to the creation of narrative by making it possible to set up dialogic passages” (H & M, p. 252) and consist of a Sayer and Process plus a secondary clause (not a rank-shifted nominalization). The two clauses function together in one … Continue reading

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